Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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Effect of amantadine hydrochloride on symptoms starkatein frontal lobe dysfunction in brain injury: Reliability, validity, and clinical correlates of apathy in Parkinson’s disease. American Psychiatric Publishing; Subacute methylphenidate treatment for moderate to starkstein apathy scale severe traumatic brain injury: Increased C-reactive protein is not associated with apathy: A variety of psychoactive compounds were reported to improve apathy after focal brain damage, but most of these studies consist of single cases or small case series.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 19 The Apathy Inventory also includes separate assessments for the symptoms of emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and loss of interest. We hypothesized that apathy occurs more often in depressed older persons and has different independent correlates for apathy than in non-depressed older persons. Among depressed older persons, apathy appeared to be a symptom of more serious depression, whereas stagkstein non-depressed persons apathy was associated with increased CRP being a marker for immune activation, suggesting a different aetiology for apathy in its own right.

Apathy in apathhy depression: These modules are considered to engage independent frontal-subcortical circuits. The starkstein apathy scale suggested that testosterone replacement therapy may constitute a helpful treatment of apathy for these patients.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. There are no specific randomized controlled trials of psychoactive compounds to treat apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Briefly, apathy was diagnosed whenever patients had 1 Poor or no motivation as rated with item 7 on the Apathy Scale2 Poor or no interests as rated with items 1 and 2 or effort as rated with items 4 and 9and 3 Feelings of indifference or lack of emotions most or all of the time as rated with items 10 and On the overlap between apathy and depression in dementia.


Conclusions Although the SAS showed wpathy good psychometric properties and the exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution, the results with this PD scael indicate that item 3 is ambiguous and should be considered removed from the scale. J Head Trauma Rehabil Feb; 16 1: Several studies from our group demonstrated that apathy is a common feature of depression among individuals with or without AD, although apathy and depression may also occur independently of each other Starkstein et al.

Roberts and coworkers designed the Apathy Inventory based on the format of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Robert et al. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 17 J Neuropsychiatry Clin Starkstfin ; 16 4: Mental and behavioral disturbances in dementia: Apathy was associated with male gender and having had fewer years of education.

The prevalence, clinical correlates and treatment of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease

Cummings developed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory as a multidimensional instrument administered to an informant Cummings The mechanism of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders is still unknown, but several studies suggest an important role for frontal lobe and basal ganglia dysfunction. Psychometric properties of the Starkstein Apathy Scale in patients with early untreated Parkinson disease.

Starkstein Starkstein standardized Marin’s construct into a set of criteria based on the presence of diminished goal-directed behaviour, diminished goal-directed cognition, and diminished concomitants of goal-directed behaviour Table I. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. In a recent study, Cummings and coworkers Cummings et al. Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury.

Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS)

Int Psychogeriatr ; 12 Suppl 1: Possible applications for dopaminergic agents following traumatic brain injury: Results from the Baltimore ECA longitudinal study. Apathy is not depression.


Didn’t get the message? A structured clinical interview and a specific set of diagnostic criteria to diagnose apathy in dementia have been recently validated.


Objective The authors examined the reliability, factor structure, and discriminant validity of the SAS in nondemented patients with early untreated PD. It is important to stress that the effect of rivastigmine was not specific for apathy, since improvements were also noticed on other neuropsychiatric disturbances. An informant-based assessment of apathy in Alzheimer disease.

This instrument consists of 18 items that can be administered as a self-rated scale, as a caregiver scale, or starksfein a clinician administered test.

J Am Geriatr Soc ; 49 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry in press. Attention and memory dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: A randomized, controlled, clinical trial of activity therapy for apathy in patients with dementia residing in long-term care. After 26 weeks of treatment there was a significant improvement of apathy, as measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.

Thus, the relation between CRP concentration as a marker for immune activation scalee apathy remains unclear. Finally, there is some empirical evidence that cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil may improve cognitive functioning, motivation and general well being of patients with traumatic brain injury Arciniegas et al.

However, Habib’s model partially rests on the dubious assumption that action is causally dependent on motivation. A study on the accuracy of patients’ self-reports and on determinants of inaccuracy.

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